“The abuse potential of kratom according the 8 factors of the controlled substances act: implications for regulation and research.”
Since the US Drug Enforcement Administration listed kratom as a “Drug of Concern” in 2008, scientists and advocates from around the globe have come together to prove otherwise. The DEA faced massive backlash in 2016 after publishing a notice of intent to place mitragynine and 7-OH into Schedule I of the Controlled Substances Act.
This paper is a summary of the original findings by PinneyAssociates (hosted here courtesy of the American Kratom Association), and the Introduction speaks for itself; “This article summarizes key elements of the Henningfield and Fant eight factor analysis, with additional research findings that have been published since that analysis was developed and concludes with recommendations for the future evaluation and regulation of kratom and its primary CNS active alkaloids.”
- Moreover, as is the case with respect to caffeinated beverages, common levels of kratom consumption are not generally associated with adverse health effects.
- Another parallel with caffeinated beverages distinguishes caffeine and kratom from substances such as cocaine which in some cultures have been used and can be used with relatively low risk of adverse effects when consumed orally (Biondich and Avner 2016; Llosa 2007).
- Even with a substance as potentially toxic and addictive as cocaine, the oral route of consumption… carries an overall far safer profile than cocaine by its more typical modern routes of administration by smoking, nasal insufflation, and injection which cocaine lends itself to, but kratom and its mitragynines do not…
Publication details: Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2018 Feb;235(2):573-589. doi: 10.1007/s00213-017-4813-4. Epub 2017 Dec 23. PMID: 29273821; PMCID: PMC5813050.
READ FULL ARTICLE HERE: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5813050/